Britannica English: Translating peace for Arabic-speaking peoples A peace treaty is often not used to end a civil war, especially in the event of failed secession, as it involves mutual recognition of the state. In cases like the Civil War, it usually ends when the losing side`s army capitulates and its government collapses. In contrast, a successful secession or declaration of independence is often formalized by a peace treaty. Thus, when military force is used, it is called “international armed conflict” instead of “war”. The fact that the current system of international law avoids the use of the term “war” also avoids the conclusion of a peace treaty based on the existence of war. [5] After the end of the war in Iraq in 2003, no peace treaty was signed, and only UN Security Council Resolution 1483, adopted on May 22, 2003, established the post-war regime exclusively for the stability and security of Iraq. [6] One of the tasks of the United Nations in peace processes is to conduct post-conflict elections, but overall, they are thought to have no, if any, negative effect on peace after a civil war. [7] [8] [9] The Korean War is an example of a conflict ending in an armistice rather than a peace treaty with the Korean Armistice Agreement. However, this war was never technically over because a final peace treaty or settlement was never concluded. [30] Probably the first recorded peace treaty, although rarely mentioned or recalled, was between the Hittite Empire and the Hayasa-Azzi Confederacy around 1350 BC. J.-C.

It is best known that one of the first recorded peace treaties between the Heptite and Egyptian empires was concluded after the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC. J.-C. (see Egyptian-Aseptic Peace Treaty). The battle took place in present-day Syria, with the entire Levant at the time disputed between the two empires. After an extremely costly four-day battle, in which neither side gained a significant advantage, both sides won the victory. The lack of resolution led to new conflicts between Egypt and the Hittites, with Ramses II conquering the city of Kadesh and Amurru in his 8th year as king. [12] However, the prospect of another protracted conflict between the two states eventually convinced their two leaders, Hatusiliš III and Ramses, to end their dispute and sign a peace treaty. The art of negotiating a peace treaty in modern times has been designated by the jurist Christine Bell as the lex pacificatoria[2] with a peace treaty that can contribute to the legal framework of the post-conflict period or jus post bellum.

[3] A more recent example of a peace treaty is the 1973 Paris Peace Agreement, which aimed to end the Vietnam War.